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Arctic Report Card: Update for 2018

Effects of persistent Arctic warming continue to mount

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Arctic Essays


Surface Air Temperature

Acosta Navarro, J. C., V. Varma, I. Riipinen, Ø. Seland, A. Kirkevåg, H. Struthers, T. Iversen, H. -C. Hansson, and A. M. L. Ekman, 2016: Amplification of Arctic warming by past air pollution reductions in Europe. Nat. Geosci., 9, 277-281.

Dufour, A., O. Zolina, and S. K. Gulev, 2016: Atmospheric moisture transport to the Arctic. J. Clim., 29, 5061-5081.

Kim, B. -M., S. -W. Son, S. -K. Min, J. -H. Jeong, S. -J. Kim, X. Zhang, T Shim, and J. -H. Yoon, 2014: Weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex by Arctic sea-ice loss. Nat. Commun., 5, 4646, doi: 10.1038/ncomms5646.

Kim, B. -M., J. -Y. Hong, S. -Y. Jun, X. Zhang, H. Kwon, S. -J. Kim, J. -H. Kim, S. -W. Kim, and H. -K. Kim, 2017: Major cause of unprecedented Arctic warming in January 2016: Critical role of Atlantic windstorm. Sci. Rep., 7, 40051, doi: 10.1038/srep40051.

Mahlstein, I., and R. Knutti, 2012: September Arctic sea ice predicted to disappear near 2° C global warming above present. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 117, D06104, doi: 10.1029/2011JD016709.

Nordli, Ø., R. Przybylak, A. E. J. Ogilvie, and K. Isaksen, 2014: Long-term temperature trends and variability on Spitsbergen: The extended Svalbard Airport temperature series, 1898-2012. Polar Res., 33(1), 21349, doi: 10.3402/polar.v33.21349.

Notz, D., and J. Stroeve, 2016: Observed Arctic sea-ice loss directly follows anthropogenic CO2 emission. Science, 354, 747-750, doi: 10.1126/science.aag2345.

Overland, J. E., 2009: The case for global warming in the Arctic, in Influence of Climate Change on the Changing Arctic and Sub-Arctic Conditions. J. C. J. Nihoul and A. G. Kostianoy, Eds., Springer, pp. 13-23.

Pithan, F., and T. Mauritsen, 2014: Arctic amplification dominated by temperature feedbacks in contemporary climate models. Nat. Geosci., 7, 181-184, doi: 10.1038/ngeo2071.

Terrestrial Snow Cover

Brasnett, B., 1999: A global analysis of snow depth for numerical weather prediction. J. Appl. Meteorol., 38, 726-740.

Brown, R., B. Brasnett, and D. Robinson, 2003: Gridded North American monthly snow depth and snow water equivalent for GCM evaluation. Atmos.-Ocean., 41, 1-14.

Brun, E., V. Vionnet, A. Boone, B. Decharme, Y. Peings, R. Valette, F. Karbou, and S. Morin, 2013: Simulation of Northern Eurasian local snow depth, mass, and density using a detailed snowpack model and meteorological reanalyses. J. Hydrometeorol., 14, 203-219, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-012.1.

Estilow, T. W., A. H. Young, and D. A. Robinson, 2015: A long-term Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent data record for climate studies and monitoring. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 137-142.

Helfrich, S., D. McNamara, B. Ramsay, T. Baldwin, and T. Kasheta, 2007: Enhancements to, and forthcoming developments in the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). Hydrol. Process., 21, 1576-1586.

Reichle, R., C. Draper, Q. Liu, M. Girotto, S. Mahanama, R. Koster, and G. De Lannoy, 2017: Assessment of MERRA-2 land surface hydrology estimates. J. Clim., 30, 2937-2960, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0720.1.

Takala, M., K. Luojus, J. Pulliainen, C. Derksen, J. Lemmetyinen, J. -P. Kärnä, and J. Koskinen, 2011: Estimating northern hemisphere snow water equivalent for climate research through assimilation of space-borne radiometer data and ground-based measurements. Remote Sens. Environ., 115, 3517-3529.

Greenland Ice Sheet

Box, J. E., and K. Hansen, 2015: Survey of Greenland glacier area changes. PROMICE Newsletter, 8, December 2015,

Box, J. E., D. van As, and K. Steffen, 2017: Greenland, Canadian and Icelandic land ice albedo grids (2000-2016). Geol. Surv. Den. Greenl. Bull., 38, 53-56.

Cappelen, J. (Ed.), 2019: Greenland - DMI Historical Climate Data Collection 1784-2018. DMI Report 19. (in preparation)

Mote, T., 2007: Greenland surface melt trends 1973-2007: Evidence of a large increase in 2007. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L22507.

Nghiem, S. V., D. K. Hall, T. L. Mote, M. Tedesco, M. R. Albert, K. Keegan, C. A. Shuman, N. E. DiGirolamo, and G. Neumann, 2012: The extreme melt across the Greenland ice sheet in 2012. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L20502, doi: 10.1029/2012GL053611.

Tedesco, M., X. Fettweis, T. Mote, J. Wahr, P. Alexander, J. Box, and B. Wouters, 2013: Evidence and analysis of 2012 Greenland records from spaceborne observations, a regional climate model and reanalysis data. Cryosphere, 7, 615-630.

Tedesco, M., J. E. Box, J. Cappelen, R. S. Fausto; X. Fettweis, K. Hansen, T. Mote, I. Sasgen, C. J. P. P. Smeets, D. van As, R. S. W. van de Wal, and I. Velicogna, 2017: Greenland Ice Sheet [in Arctic Report Card 2017],

van As, D., R. S. Fausto, J. Cappelen, R. S. W. Van de Wal, R. J. Braithwaite, H. Machguth, and PROMICE project team, 2016: Placing Greenland ice sheet ablation measurements in a multi-decadal context. Geol. Surv. Den. Greenl. Bull., 35, 71-74.

van de Wal, R. S. W., W. Boot, C. J. P. P. Smeets, H. Snellen, M. R. van den Broeke, and J. Oerlemans, 2012: Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West-Greenland. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 4, 31-35, doi: 10.5194/essd-4-31-2012.

Sea Ice

Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, and H. J. Zwally. 1996, updated yearly: Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data, Version 1. Boulder, CO USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center, doi: 10.5067/8GQ8LZQVL0VL.

Fetterer, F., K. Knowles, W. Meier, and M. Savoie, 2002, updated 2012: Sea Ice Index, National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media, Boulder, CO.

Laxon, S. W., K. A. Giles, A. L. Ridout, D. J. Wingham, R. Willatt, R. Cullen, R. Kwok, A. Schweiger, J. Zhang, C. Haas, S. Hendricks, R. Krishfield, N. Kurtz, S. Farrell, and M. Davidson, 2013: CryoSat-2 estimates of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 732-737, doi: 10.1002/grl.50193.

Maslanik, J., and J. Stroeve, 1999, updated daily: Near-Real-Time DMSP SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations, Version 1. Boulder, Colorado USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center, doi: 10.5067/U8C09DWVX9LM.

Maslanik, J., J. Stroeve, C. Fowler, and W. Emery, 2011: Distribution and trends in Arctic sea ice age through spring 2011. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L13502, doi: 10.1029/2011GL047735.

Meier, W. N., J. Stroeve, A. Barrett, and F. Fetterer, 2012: A simple approach to providing a more consistent Arctic sea ice extent time series from the 1950s to present. Cryosphere, 6, 1359-1368, doi: 10.5194/tc-6-1359-2012.

Tschudi, M. A., J. C. Stroeve, and J. S. Stewart, 2016: Relating the age of Arctic sea ice to its thickness, as measured during NASA's ICESat and IceBridge Campaigns. Remote Sens., 8(6), 457, doi: 10.3390/rs8060457.

Tschudi, M. A., C. Fowler, J. A. Maslanik, and J. A. Stroeve, 2010: Tracking the movement and changing surface characteristics of Arctic sea ice. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Obs. Remote Sens., 3, 536-540, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2010.2048305.

Tschudi, M., C. Fowler, and J. Maslanik, 2015: EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age, Version 2. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center, Boulder, CO, doi: 10.5067/1UQJWCYPVX61.

Warren, S., I. Rigor, N. Untersteiner, V. F. Radionov, N. N. Bryazgin, Y. I. Aleksandrov, and R. Colony, 1999: Snow depth on Arctic sea ice. J. Clim., 12, 1814-1829.

Sea Surface Temperature

Barton, B. I., Y. Lenn, and C. Lique, 2018: Observed Atlantification of the Barents Sea causes the Polar Front to limit the expansion of winter sea ice. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 48, 1849-1866, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-18-0003.1.

Fetterer, F., K. Knowles, W. Meier, M. Savoie, and A. K. Windnagel. 2017, updated daily. Sea Ice Index, Version 3. Boulder, Colorado USA. NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center. doi: 10.7265/N5K072F8.

Lind, S., R. B. Ingvaldsen, and T. Furevik, 2018: Arctic warming hotspot in the northern Barents Sea linked to declining sea-ice import. Nat. Clim. Change, 8(7), 634-639, doi: 10.1038/s41558-018-0205-y.

Long, Z., and W. Perrie, 2017: Changes in ocean temperature in the Barents Sea in the twenty-first century. J. Clim., 30, 5901-5921, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0415.1.

Parkinson, C. L., 2014: Spatially mapped reductions in the length of the Arctic sea ice season. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 4316-4322, doi: 10.1002/2014GL060434.

Reynolds, R. W., N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang, 2002: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Clim., 15, 1609-1625.

Reynolds, R. W., T. M. Smith, C. Liu, D. B. Chelton, K. S. Casey, and M. G. Schlax, 2007: Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J. Clim., 20, 5473-5496. (Data available at

Stroh, J. N., G. Panteleev, S. Kirillov, M. Makhotin, and N. Shakhova, 2015: Sea-surface temperature and salinity product comparison against external in situ data in the Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120, 7223-7236, doi: 10.1002/2015JC011005.

Timmermans, M. -L., J. Toole, R. Krishfield, 2018: Warming of the interior Arctic Ocean linked to sea ice losses at the basin margins. Sci. Adv., 4(8) eaat6773, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aat6773.

Arctic Ocean Primary Productivity: The Response of Marine Algae to Climate Warming and Sea Ice Decline

Ardyna, M., M. Babin, E. Devred, A. Forest, M. Gosselin, P. Raimbault, and J.-É. Tremblay, 2017: Shelf-basin gradients shape ecological phytoplankton niches and community composition in the coastal Arctic Ocean (Beaufort Sea). Limnol. Oceanogr., 62, 2113-2132, doi: 10.1002/lno.10554.

Babin, M., S. Bélanger, I. Ellinsten, A. Forest, V. Le Fouest, T. Lacour, M. Ardyna, and D. Slagstad, 2015: Estimation of primary production in the Arctic Ocean using ocean colour remote sensing and coupled physical-biological models: Strengths, limitations and how they compare. Prog. Oceanogr., 139, 197-220, doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2015.08.008.

Barber, D. G., H. Hop, C. J. Mundy, B. Else, I. A. Dmitrenko, J. -É. Tremblay, J. K. Ehn, P. Assmy, M. Daase, L. M. Candlish, and S. Rysgaard, 2015: Selected physical, biological and biogeochemical implications of a rapidly changing Arctic Marginal Ice Zone. Prog. Oceanogr., 139, 122-150, doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2015.09.003.

Behrenfeld, M. J., and P. G. Falkowski, 1997: Photosynthetic rates derived from satellite-based chlorophyll concentration. Limnol. Oceanogr., 42(1), 1-20.

Bélanger, S., M. Babin, and J. É. Tremblay, 2013: Increasing cloudiness in Arctic damps the increase in phytoplankton primary production due to sea ice receding. Biogeosciences, 10, 4087-4101, doi: 10.5194/bg-10-4087-2013.

Chaves, J., P. J. Werdell, C. W. Proctor, A. R. Neeley, S. A. Freeman, C. S. Thomas, and S. B. Hooker, 2015: Assessment of ocean color data records from MODIS-Aqua in the western Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 118A, 32-43, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2015.02.011.

Comiso, J. C., 2015: Variability and trends of the global sea ice covers and sea levels: Effects on physicochemical parameters, in Climate and Fresh Water Toxins. L. M. Botana, M. C. Lauzao, and N. Vilarino, Eds., De Gruyter, Berlin, Germany.

Comiso, J. C., R. Gersten, L. Stock, J. Turner, G. Perez, and K. Cho, 2017a: Positive trends in the Antarctic sea ice cover and associated changes in surface temperature. J. Clim., 30, 2251-2267, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0408.1.

Comiso, J. C., W. N. Meier, and R. Gersten, 2017b: Variability and trends in the Arctic Sea ice cover: Results from different techniques. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122, 6883-6900, doi: 10.1002/2017JC012768.

Demidov, A. B., S. A. Mosharov, and P. N. Makkaveev, 2014: Patterns of the Kara Sea primary production in autumn: Biotic and abiotic forcing of subsurface layer. J. Marine Syst., 132, 130-149, doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.01.014.

Frey, K. E., J. A. Maslanik, J. Clement Kinney, and W. Maslowski, 2014: Recent variability in sea ice cover, age, and thickness in the Pacific Arctic Region, in The Pacific Arctic Region: Ecosystem status and trends in a rapidly changing environment. J. M. Grebmeier, and W. Maslowski, Eds., Springer: Dordrecht, pp. 31-64.

Frey, K. E., G. W. K. Moore, L. W. Cooper, and J. M. Grebmeier, 2015: Divergent patterns of recent sea ice cover across the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort seas of the Pacific Arctic Region. Prog. Oceanogr., 136, 32-49, doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2015.05.009.

Giesbrecht, K. E., D. E. Varela, D. E., J. Wiktor, J. M. Grebmeier, B. Kelly, and J.E. Long, 2018 (in press): A decade of summertime measurements of phytoplankton biomass, productivity and assemblage composition in the Pacific Arctic Region from 2006 to 2016. Deep Sea Res. Pt. II–Top. Stud. Oceanogr., doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2018.06.010.

Hill, V., M. Ardyna, S. H. Lee, and D. E. Varela, 2018: Decadal trends in phytoplankton production in the Pacific Arctic Region from 1950 to 2012. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 152, 82-94, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2016.12.015.

Kahru, M., 2017: Ocean productivity from space: Commentary. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 31, 214-216, doi: 10.1002/2016GB005582.

Lee, Y. J., et al., 2015: An assessment of phytoplankton primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean from satellite ocean color/in situ chlorophyll-a based models. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120, 6508-6541, doi: 10.1002/2015JC011018.

Leu, E., C. J. Mundy, P. Assmy, K. Campbell, T. M. Gabrielsen, M. Gosselin, T. Juul-Pedersen, and R. Gradinger, 2015: Arctic spring awakening - Steering principles behind the phenology of vernal ice algal blooms. Prog.Oceanogr., 139, 151-170, doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2015.07.012..

Moore, S. E., and J. M. Grebmeier, 2018: The Distributed Biological Observatory: Linking physics to biology in the Pacific Arctic region. Arctic, 71 (Suppl. 1), 1-7; doi: 10.14430/arctic4606.

Müller-Karger, F. E., R. Varela, R. Thunell, R. Luerssen, C. Hu, and J. J. Walsh, 2005: The importance of continental margins in the global carbon cycle. I, 32, L01602, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021346.

Neeley, A. R., L. A. Harris, and K. E. Frey, 2018: Unraveling phytoplankton community dynamics in the northern Chukchi and western Beaufort seas amid climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 7663-7671, doi: 10.1029/2018GL077684.

Tremblay J. -É., L. G. Anderson, P. Matrai, S. Bélanger, C. Michel, P. Coupel, and M. Reigstad, 2015: Global and regional drivers of nutrient supply, primary production and CO2 drawdown in the changing Arctic Ocean. Prog. Oceanogr., 139, 171-196, doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2015.08.009.

Tundra Greenness

Ackerman, D. E., D. Griffin, S. E. Hobbie, K. Popham, E. Jones, and J. C. Finlay, 2018: Uniform shrub growth response to June temperature on the North Slope of Alaska. Environ. Res. Lett., 13, 044013.

Becher, M., J. Olofsson, L. Berglund, and J. Klaminder, 2018: Decreased cryogenic disturbance: one of the mechanisms behind the vegetation change in the Arctic. Polar Biol., 41, 101-110.

Bhatt, U. S., D. A. Walker, M. K. Raynolds, P. A. Bieniek, H. E. Epstein, J. C. Comiso, J. E. Pinzon, C. J. Tucker, and I. V. Polyakov, 2013: Recent declines in warming and vegetation greening trends over pan-Arctic tundra. Remote Sens., 4, 4229-4254.

Bjorkman, A. D., et al., 2018: Plant functional trait change across a warming tundra biome. Nature, 562, 57-62, doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0563-7.

Christiansen, C. T., M. J. Lafreniere, G. H. R. Henry, and P. Grogan, 2018: Long-term deepened snow promotes tundra evergreen shrub growth and summertime ecosystem net CO2 gain but reduces soil carbon and nutrient pools. Global Change Biol., 24, 3508-3525.

Frost, G. V., H. E. Epstein, D. A. Walker, G. Matyshak, and K. Ermokhina, 2018: Seasonal and long-term changes in active-layer temperatures after tall shrubland expansion and succession in arctic tundra. Ecosystems, 21, 507-520.

Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS), 2013: Available online:

Karlsen, S. R., H. B. Anderson, R. van der Wal, and B. B. Hansen, 2018: A new NDVI measure that overcomes data sparsity in cloud-covered regions predicts annual variation in ground-based estimates of high arctic plant productivity. Environ. Res. Lett., 13:025011.

Keenan, T. F., and W. J. Riley, 2018: Greening of the land surface in the world's cold regions consistent with recent warming. Nature Clim. Change, 8, 825-828, doi: 10.1038/s41558-018-0258-y.

Lafleur, P. M., and E. R. Humphreys, 2018: Tundra shrub effects on growing season energy and carbon dioxide exchange. Environ. Res. Lett., 13, 055001.

Lara, M. J., I. Nitze, G. Grosse, P. Martin, and A. D. McGuire, 2018: Reduced arctic tundra productivity linked with landform and climate change interactions. Sci. Rep., 8, 2345.

Maliniemi, T., J. Kapfer, P. Saccone, A. Skog, and R. Virtanen, 2018: Long-term vegetation changes of treeless heath communities in northern Fennoscandia: Links to climate change trends and reindeer grazing. J. Veg. Sci., 29, 469-479.

Myers-Smith, I. H., and D. S. Hik, 2018: Climate warming as a driver of tundra shrubline advance. J. Ecol., 106, 47-560.

Olofsson J., L. Oksanen, T. Callaghan, P. E. Hulme, T, Oksanen, and O. Suominen, 2009: Herbivores inhibit climate-driven shrub expansion on the tundra. Global Change Biol., 15, 2681-2693.

Opala-Owczarek, M., E. Piroznikow, P. Owczarek, W. Szymanski, B. Luks, D. Kepski, M. Szymanowski, B. Wojtun, and K. Migala, 2018: The influence of abiotic factors on the growth of two vascular plant species (Saxifraga oppositifolia and Salix polaris) in the High Arctic. Catena, 163, 219-232.

Parmentier, F. -J., D. Rasse, M. Lund, J. W. Bjerke, B. G. Drake, S. Weldon, H. Tømmervik, and G. H. Hansen, 2018: Vulnerability and resilience of the carbon exchange of a subarctic peatland to an extreme winter event. Environ. Res. Lett., 13, 065009.

Phoenix, G. K., and J. W. Bjerke, 2016: Arctic browning: Extreme events and trends reversing arctic greening. Global Change Biol., 22, 2960-2962.

Pinzon, J., and C. Tucker, 2014: A non-stationary 1981-2014 AVHRR NDVI3g time series. Remote Sens., 6, 6929-6960, doi: 10.3390/rs6086929.

Raynolds M. K., D. A. Walker, H. E. Epstein, J. E. Pinzon, and C. J. Tucker, 2012: A new estimate of tundra-biome phytomass from trans-Arctic field data and AVHRR NDVI. Remote Sens. Lett., 3, 403-411.

Reichle, L. M., H. E. Epstein, U. S. Bhatt, M. K. Raynolds, and D. A. Walker, 2018: Spatial heterogeneity of the temporal dynamics of Arctic tundra vegetation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 9206-9215, doi: 10.1029/2018GL078820.

Treharne, R., J. W. Bjerke, L. D. Emberson, H. Tømmervik, and G. K. Phoenix, 2016: Arctic browning: Vegetation damage and implications for carbon balance. Geophys. Res. Abstracts, 18, EGU2016-8838.

Wang, X., T. Wang, H. Guo, D. Liu, Y. T. Zhao, T. T. Zhang, Q. Liu, and S. L. Piao, 2018: Disentangling the mechanisms behind winter snow impact on vegetation activity in northern ecosystems. Global Change Biol., 24, 1651-1662.

Weijers, S., I. H. Myers-Smith, and J. Loeffler, 2018: A warmer and greener cold world: summer warming increases shrub growth in the alpine and high arctic tundra. Erdkunde, 72, 63-85.

Wheeler, H. C., T. T. Hoye, and J. -C. Svenning, 2018: Wildlife species benefitting from a greener Arctic are most sensitive to shrub cover at leading range edges. Global Change Biol., 24, 212-223.

Xu, X., W. J. Riley, C. D. Koven, and G. S. Jia, 2018: Observed and simulated sensitivities of spring greenup to preseason climate in northern temperate and boreal regions. J. Geophys. Res.–Biogeosci., 123, 60-78.

River Discharge

Aagaard, K., and E. C. Carmack, 1989: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 94(C10), 14,485-14,498.

Déry, S. J., T. A. Stadnyk, M. K. MacDonald, and B. Gauli-Sharma, 2016: Recent trends and variability in river discharge across northern Canada. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4801-4818, doi: 10.5194/hess-20-4801-2016.

Holmes, R. M., M. T. Coe, G. J. Fiske, T. Gurtovaya, J. W. McClelland, A. I. Shiklomanov, R. G. M. Spencer, S. E. Tank, and A. V. Zhulidov, 2013: Climate change impacts on the hydrology and biogeochemistry of Arctic Rivers, in Global Impacts of Climate Change on Inland Waters. C. R. Goldman, M. Kumagai, and R. D. Robarts, Eds., Wiley, pp. 3-26.

Holmes, R. M., A. I Shiklomanov, S. E. Tank, J. W. McCelland, and M. Tretiakov, 2015: River Discharge [in Arctic Report Card 2015],

McClelland, J. W., S. J. Déry, B. J. Peterson, R. M. Holmes, and E. F. Wood, 2006: A pan-arctic evaluation of changes in river discharge during the latter half of the 20th century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L06715, doi: 06710.01029/02006GL025753.

McClelland, J. W., R. M. Holmes, K. H. Dunton, and R. Macdonald, 2012: The Arctic Ocean estuary. Estuar. Coast., 35, 353-368, doi: 10.1007/s12237-010-9357-3.

Overeem, I., and J. P. M. Syvitski, 2010: Shifting discharge peaks in Arctic rivers, 1977-2007. Geogr. Ann. A, 92, 285-296.

Peterson, B. J., R. M. Holmes, J. W. McClelland, C. J. Vorosmarty, R. B. Lammers, A. I. Shiklomanov, I. A. Shiklomanov, and S. Rahmstorf, 2002: Increasing river discharge to the Arctic Ocean. Science, 298, 2171-2173.

Rawlins, M. A., et al., 2010: Analysis of the arctic system freshwater cycle intensification: Observations and expectations. J. Climate, 23, 5715-5737, doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3421.1.

Rood, S. B., S. Kaluthota, L. J. Philipsen, N. J. Rood, and K. P. Zanewich, 2017: Increasing discharge from the Mackenzie River system to the Arctic Ocean. Hydrol. Process., 31, 150-160, doi: 10.1002/hyp.10986.

Shiklomanov A. I., and R. B. Lammers, 2009: Record Russian river discharge in 2007 and the limits of analysis. Environ. Res. Lett., 4, 045015, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/4/4/045015.

Lake Ice

Baijnath-Rodino, J. A., C. R. Duguay, and E. F. LeDrew, 2018: Climatological trends of snowfall over the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin. Int. J. Climatol., 38, 3942-3962.

Brown, L. C., and C. R. Duguay, 2010: The response and role of ice cover in lake-climate interactions. Prog. Phys. Geogr., 34,671-704.

Du, J., J. S. Kimball, C. R. Duguay, Y. Kim, and J. Watts, 2017: Satellite microwave assessment of Northern Hemisphere lake ice phenology from 2002 to 2015. Cryosphere, 11, 47-63.

Duguay, C., L. Brown, K. -K. Kang, and H. Kheyrollah Pour, 2015a: [The Arctic] Lake ice [in "State of the Climate in 2014"]. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 96, S144-S145.

Duguay C. R., L. C. Brown, K. K. Kang, H. Kheyrollah Pour, 2013: Lake ice [in Arctic Report Card 2013],

Duguay, C. R., M. Bernier, Y. Gauthier, and A. Kouraev, 2015b: Lake and river ice, in Remote Sensing of the Cryosphere. M. Tedesco, Ed., Wiley-Blackwell (Oxford, UK), pp. 273-306.

Duguay, C. R., T. D. Prowse, B. R. Bonsal, R. D. Brown, M. P. Lacroix, and P. Ménard, 2006: Recent trends in Canadian lake ice cover. Hydrol. Process., 20, 781-801.

Eerola, K., L. Rontu, E. Kourzeneva, H. Kheyrollah Pour, and C. R. Duguay, 2014: Impact of partly ice-free Lake Ladoga on temperature and cloudiness in an anticyclonic winter situation—a case study using HIRLAM model. Tellus A, 66, 23929.

GCOS, 2016: The Global Observing System for climate: Implementation needs, GCOS-200. GCOS 2016 Implementation Plan. World Meteorological Organization, 315 pp.

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Migratory Tundra Caribou and Wild Reindeer

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Clarity and Clouds: Progress in Understanding Arctic Influences on Mid-latitude Weather

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Harmful Algal Blooms in the Arctic

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Microplastics in the Marine Realms of the Arctic with Special Emphasis on Sea Ice

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Landfast Sea Ice in a Changing Arctic

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