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Arctic Report Card: Update for 2020
The sustained transformation to a warmer, less frozen and biologically changed Arctic remains clear
Archive of previous Arctic Report Cards
2020 Arctic Report Card


The Observational Foundation of the Arctic Report Card – a 15-Year Retrospective Analysis on the Arctic Observing Network (AON) and Insights for the Future System

Arctic Council (AC), 2009: Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report. B. Ellis and L. Brigham, Eds., 194 pp.,

Arctic Council (AC), 2016: Arctic Resilience Report. M. Carson and G. Peterson, Eds. Stockholm Environment Institute and Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm, Sweden,

Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP), 2017: Snow, water, ice and permafrost. Summary for policy-makers. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway, 20 pp.,

Arctic Observing Summit Executive Organizing Committee (AOS EOC), 2018: Report of the 4th Arctic Observing Summit: AOS 2018, Davos, Switzerland, 24-26 June 2018. International Study of Arctic Change (ISAC) Program Office, Arctic Institute of North America, Calgary, Canada.

Box, J. E., D. van As, and K. Steffen, 2017: Greenland, Canadian and Icelandic land ice albedo grids (2000-2016). Geol. Surv. Den. Greenl., 38, 53-56.

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), 2017: State of fresh water report. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland,

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), 2019: State of the arctic marine biodiversity report. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland,

Fausto, R. S., and D. van As, 2019: Programme for monitoring of the Greenland ice sheet (PROMICE): Automatic weather station data. Version: v03, Dataset published via Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland,

Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA), 2017: International Arctic Observations Assessment Framework. IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute, Washington, DC, U.S.A., and Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks, Oslo, Norway, 73 pp.,

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2019: IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [H. -O. Pörtner, D. C. Roberts, V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, M. Tignor, E. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Nicolai, A. Okem, J. Petzold, B. Rama, and N. M. Weyer (eds.)], in press.

Inuit Circumpolar Council-Canada (ICC), 2008: The Sea Ice is Our Highway: An Inuit Perspective on Transportation in the Arctic.

Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), 2014: The Sea Ice Never Stops: Circumpolar Inuit Reflections on Sea Ice Use and Shipping in Inuit Nunaat.

Lavergne, T., and Coauthors, 2019: Version 2 of EUMETSAT OSI SAF and ESA CCi sea ice concentration climate data records. Cryosphere, 12, 49-78,

Lee, C. M., and Coauthors, 2019: A Framework for the development, design and implementation of a sustained Arctic ocean observing system. Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 451,

Murray, M. S., R. D. Sankar, and G. Ibarguchi, 2018: The Arctic Observing Summit, Background and Synthesis of Outcomes 2013-2016. International Study of Arctic Change (ISAC) Program Office, Arctic Institute of North America, Calgary, Canada.

National Research Council (NRC), 2006: Toward an integrated Arctic Observing Network. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC,

Richter-Menge, J., M. L. Druckenmiller, and M. Jeffries, Eds., 2019: Arctic Report Card 2019,

Surface Air Temperature

Biskaborn, B. K., and Coauthors, 2019: Permafrost is warming at a global scale. Nat. Commun., 10, 264,

Box, J. E., and Coauthors, 2019: Key indicators of Arctic climate change: 1971-2017. Environ. Res. Lett., 14, 045010,

Cohen, J., and Coauthors, 2020: Divergent consensuses on Arctic amplification influence on midlatitude severe winter weather. Nat. Climate Change, 10, 20-29,

Hanna, E., and Coauthors, 2020: Mass balance of the ice sheets and glaciers – Progress since AR5 and challenges. Earth-Sci. Rev., 201, 102976,

Jones, P. D., D. H. Lister, T. J. Osborn, C. Harpham, M. Salmon, and C. P. Morice, 2012: Hemispheric and large-scale land-surface air temperature variations: An extensive revision and an update to 2010. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D05127,

Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437-472,<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2.

Myers-Smith, and Coauthors, 2020: Complexity revealed in the greening of the Arctic. Nat. Climate Change, 10, 106-117,

Overland, J. E., and M. Wang, 2020: The 2020 Siberian heat wave. Int. J. Climatol.,

Pithan, F., and T. Mauritsen, 2014: Arctic amplification dominated by temperature feedbacks in contemporary climate models. Nat. Geosci., 7, 181-184,

Stroeve, J., and D. Notz, 2018: Changing state of Arctic sea ice across all seasons. Environ. Res. Lett., 13, 103001,

Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1297-1300,

Terrestrial Snow Cover

Brasnett, B., 1999: A global analysis of snow depth for numerical weather prediction. J. Appl. Meteor., 38, 726-740.

Brown, R., B. Brasnett, and D. Robinson, 2003: Gridded North American monthly snow depth and snow water equivalent for GCM evaluation. Atmos.-Ocean., 41, 1-14.

Brown, R. D., and B. Brasnett, 2010: Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) Daily Snow Depth Analysis Data, Version 1. Boulder, Colorado USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center., (last access: 27 July 2020).

Brown, R., D. Vikhamar Schuler, O. Bulygina, C. Derksen, K. Luojus, L. Mudryk, L. Wang, and D. Yang, 2017: Arctic terrestrial snow cover. Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) 2017, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway, 25-64.

Brun, E., V. Vionnet, A. Boone, B. Decharme, Y. Peings, R. Valette, F. Karbou, and S. Morin, 2013: Simulation of Northern Eurasian local snow depth, mass, and density using a detailed snowpack model and meteorological reanalyses. J. Hydrometeor., 14, 203-219,

Callaghan, T., and Coauthors, 2011: The changing face of Arctic snow cover: A synthesis of observed and projected changes. Ambio, 40, 17-31,

Estilow, T. W., A. H. Young, and D. A. Robinson, 2015: A long-term Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent data record for climate studies and monitoring. Earth Sys. Sci. Data, 7(1), 137-142,

Gelaro, R., and Coauthors, 2017: The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2). J. Climate, 30, 5419-5454,

GMAO (Global Modeling and Assimilation Office), 2015: MERRA-2tavg1_2d_lnd_Nx:2d, 1-Hourly, Time-Averaged, Single-Level, Assimilation, Land Surface Diagnostics V5.12.4, Greenbelt, MD, USA, Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GESDISC),, (last access: 26 August 2020).

Helfrich, S., D. McNamara, B. Ramsay, T. Baldwin, and T. Kasheta, 2007: Enhancements to, and forthcoming developments in the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). Hydrol. Process., 21, 1576-1586.

Mudryk, L. R., P. J. Kushner, C. Derksen, and C. Thackeray, 2017: Snow cover response to temperature in observational and climate model ensembles. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 919-926,

Mudryk, L., M. Santolaria-Otín, G. Krinner, M. Ménégoz, C. Derksen, C. Brutel-Vuilmet, M. Brady, and R. Essery, 2020: Historical Northern Hemisphere snow cover trends and projected changes in the CMIP6 multi-model ensemble. Cryosphere, 14, 2495-2514,

Robinson, D. A., T. W. Estilow, and NOAA CDR Program, 2012: NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Northern Hemisphere (NH) Snow Cover Extent (SCE), Version 1 [r01]. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information,, (last access: 27 July 2020).

Takala, M., K. Luojus, J. Pulliainen, C. Derksen, J. Lemmetyinen, J. -P. Kärnä, and J. Koskinen, 2011: Estimating Northern Hemisphere snow water equivalent for climate research through assimilation of space-borne radiometer data and ground-based measurements. Remote Sens. Environ., 115, 3517-3529,

U.S. National Ice Center, 2008: IMS Daily Northern Hemisphere Snow and Ice Analysis at 1 km, 4 km, and 24 km Resolutions, Version 1. Boulder, Colorado USA. NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center,, (last access: 27 July 2020).

Greenland Ice Sheet

Andersen, J. K., and Coauthors, 2019: Update of annual calving front lines for 47 marine terminating outlet glaciers in Greenland (1999-2018). Geol. Surv. Den. Greenl., 43, e2019430202,

Box, J. E., D. van As, and K. Steffen, 2017: Greenland, Canadian and Icelandic land ice albedo grids (2000-2016). Geol. Surv. Den. Greenl., 38, 53-56.

Fausto, R. S., and D. van As, 2019: Programme for monitoring of the Greenland ice sheet (PROMICE): Automatic weather station data, version: v03, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, (last access: 14 September 2020).

Loomis, B. D., S. B. Luthcke, and T. J. Sabaka, 2019a: Regularization and error characterization of GRACE mascons. J. Geodesy, 93, 1381–1398,

Loomis, B. D., K. E. Rachlin, and S. B. Luthcke, 2019b: Improved Earth oblateness rate reveals increased ice sheet losses and mass-driven sea level rise. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 6910-6917,

Loomis, B. D., K. E. Rachlin, D. N. Wiese, F. W. Landerer, and S. B. Luthcke, 2020: Replacing GRACE/GRACE-FO C30 with satellite laser ranging: Impacts on Antarctic Ice Sheet mass change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 47(3), e2019GL085488,

Mankoff, K. D., A. Solgaard, W. Colgan, A. P. Ahlstrøm, S. A. Khan, and R. S. Fausto, 2020: Greenland Ice Sheet solid ice discharge from 1986 through March 2020. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1367–1383,

Morlighem, M., and Coauthors, 2017: BedMachine v3: Complete bed topography and ocean bathymetry mapping of Greenland from multibeam echo sounding combined with mass conservation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(21), 11051-11061,

Mote, T., 2007: Greenland surface melt trends 1973-2007: Evidence of a large increase in 2007. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L22507,

Mouginot, J., and Coauthors, 2019: Forty-six years of Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance from 1972 to 2018. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 116(19), 9239–9244,

Peltier, W. R., D. F. Argus, and R. Drummond, 2018: Comment on “An Assessment of the ICE-6G_C (VM5a) Glacial Isostatic Adjustment Model” by Purcell et al. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth, 123, 2019-2018,

Sasgen, I., and Coauthors, 2020: Return to rapid ice loss in Greenland and record loss in 2019 detected by the GRACE-FO satellites. Commun. Earth. Environ., 1, 8,

Sun, Y., R. Riva, and P. Ditmar, 2016: Optimizing estimates of annual variations and trends in geocenter motion and J2 from a combination of GRACE data and geophysical models. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth, 121, 8352–8370,

Tedesco, M., X. Fettweis, T. Mote, J. Wahr, P. Alexander, J. Box, and B. Wouters, 2013: Evidence and analysis of 2012 Greenland records from spaceborne observations, a regional climate model and reanalysis data. Cryosphere, 7, 615-630,

van As, D., R. S. Fausto, J. Cappelen, R. S. van de Wa, R. J. Braithwaite, H. Machguth, and PROMICE project team, 2016: Placing Greenland ice sheet ablation measurements in a multi-decadal context. GEUS Bull., 35, 71-74,

van den Broeke, M. R., C. J. P. P. Smeets, and R. S. W. van de Wal, 2011: The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of surface energy balance and melt in the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet. Cryosphere, 5, 377-390,

Wahr, J., M. Molenaar, and F. Bryan, 1998: Time variability of the Earth’s gravity field: Hydrological and oceanic effects and their possible detection using GRACE. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth, 103(B12), 30205-30229,

Sea Ice

Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, and H. J. Zwally, 1996 (updated yearly): Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data, Version 1. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center, Boulder, CO, USA,

Comiso, J.C., W.N. Meier, and R. Gersten, 2017. Variability and trends in the Arctic sea ice cover: Results from different techniques. J. Geophys. Res., 122, 6883-6900,

Fetterer, F., K. Knowles, W. N. Meier, M. Savoie, and A. K. Windnagel, 2017 (updated daily): Sea Ice Index, Version 3. NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO, USA, [Accessed 27 August 2020].

Ivanova, N., O. M. Johannessen, L. T. Pedersen, and R. T. Tonboe, 2014: Retrieval of Arctic sea ice parameters by satellite passive microwave sensors: A comparison of eleven sea ice concentration algorithms. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens., 52(11), 7233-7246,

Kern, S., T. Lavergne, D. Notz, L. T. Pedersen, R. T. Tonboe, R. Saldo, and A. M. Sørensen, 2019: Satellite passive microwave sea-ice concentration data set intercomparison: closed ice and ship-based observations. Cryosphere, 13, 3261-3307,

Lavergne, T., and Coauthors, 2019: Version 2 of the EUMETSAT OSI SAF and ESA CCI sea-ice concentration climate data records. Cryosphere, 13, 49-78,

Maslanik, J., and J. Stroeve, 1999: Near-Real-Time DMSP SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations, Version 1. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center, Boulder, CO, USA,

Petty, A. A., N. T. Kurtz, R. Kwok, T. Markus, and T. A. Neumann, 2020: Winter Arctic sea ice thickness from ICESat-2 freeboards. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 125, e2019JC015764,

Ricker, R., S. Hendricks, L. Kaleschke, X. Tian-Kunze, J. King, and C. Haas, 2017: A weekly Arctic sea-ice thickness data record from merged CryoSat-2 and SMOS satellite data. Cryosphere, 11, 1607-1623,

Spreen, G., L. de Steur, D. Divine, S. Gerland, E. Hansen, and R. Kwok, 2020: Arctic sea ice volume export through Fram Strait from 1992 to 2014. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 125, e2019JC016039,

Tschudi, M. A., W. N. Meier, and J. S. Stewart, 2020: An enhancement to sea ice motion and age products at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Cryosphere, 14, 1519-1536,

Tschudi, M., W. N. Meier, J. S. Stewart, C. Fowler, and J. Maslanik, 2019: EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age, Version 4. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center, Boulder, CO, USA,

Wang, C., J. Negrel, S. Gerland, D. V. Divine, P. Dodd, and M. A. Granskog, 2020: Thermodynamics of fast ice off the northeast coast of Greenland (79° N) over a full year (2012-2013). J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 125, e2019JC015823,

Warren, S. G., I. G. Rigor, N. Untersteiner, V. F. Radionov, N. N. Bryazgin, Y. I. Aleksandrov, and R. Colony, 1999: Snow depth on Arctic sea ice. J. Climate, 12, 1814-1829,<1814:SDOASI>2.0.CO;2.

Sea Surface Temperature

DeGrandpre, M., W. Evans, M. -L. Timmermans, R. Krishfield, B. Williams, and M. Steele, 2020: Changes in the arctic ocean carbon cycle with diminishing ice cover. Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2020GL088051,

Fetterer, F., K. Knowles, W. N. Meier, M. Savoie, and A. K. Windnagel, 2017 (updated daily): Sea Ice Index, Version 3: Regional Daily Data. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), Boulder, CO, USA,

Meier, W., J. Stroeve, and F. Fetterer, 2007: Whither Arctic sea ice? A clear signal of decline regionally, seasonally and extending beyond the satellite record. Ann. Glaciol., 46, 428-434,

Meier, W. N., F. Fetterer, M. Savoie, S. Mallory, R. Duerr, and J. Stroeve. 2017: NOAA/NSIDC Climate Data Record of Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration, Version 3. [Indicate subset used]. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), Boulder, CO, USA,

Peng, G., W. N. Meier, D. J. Scott, and M. H. Savoie, 2013: A long-term and reproducible passive microwave sea ice concentration data record for climate studies and monitoring. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 311-318,

Polyakov, I. V., and Coauthors, 2020: Weakening of the cold halocline layer exposes sea ice to oceanic heat in the eastern Arctic Ocean. J. Climate, 33(18), 8107-8123,

Reynolds, R. W., N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang, 2002: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate, 15, 1609-1625,<1609:AIISAS>2.0.CO;2.

Reynolds, R. W., T. M. Smith, C. Liu, D. B. Chelton, K. S. Casey, and M. G. Schlax, 2007: Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J. Climate, 20, 5473-5496,, and see

Stroh, J. N., G. Panteleev, S. Kirillov, M. Makhotin, and N. Shakhova, 2015: Sea-surface temperature and salinity product comparison against external in situ data in the Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120, 7223-7236,

Timmermans, M. -L., Z. Labe, and C. Ladd, 2020: Sea surface temperature [in “State of the Climate in 2019”]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 101(8), S249-S251,

Arctic Ocean Primary Productivity: The Response of Marine Algae to Climate Warming and Sea Ice Decline

Ardyna, M., M. Babin, E. Devred, A. Forest, M. Gosselin, P. Raimbault, and J. -É. Tremblay, 2017: Shelf-basin gradients shape ecological phytoplankton niches and community composition in the coastal Arctic Ocean (Beaufort Sea). Limnol. Oceanogr., 62, 2113-2132,

Arrigo, K. R., and Coauthors, 2012: Massive phytoplankton blooms under Arctic sea ice. Science, 336, 1408,

Barber, D. G., and Coauthors, 2015: Selected physical, biological and biogeochemical implications of a rapidly changing Arctic Marginal Ice Zone. Prog. Oceanogr., 139, 122-150,

Behrenfeld, M. J., and E. Boss, 2006: Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass. J. Mar. Res., 64, 431-451.

Behrenfeld, M. J., and P. G. Falkowski, 1997: Photosynthetic rates derived from satellite-based chlorophyll concentration. Limnol. Oceanogr., 42(1), 1-20.

Comiso, J. C., 2015: Variability and trends of the global sea ice covers and sea levels: effects on physicochemical parameters. Climate and fresh water toxins, L. M. Botana, M. C. Lauzao, and N. Vilarino, Eds., De Gruyter, Berlin, Germany.

Comiso, J. C., R. A. Gersten, L. V. Stock, J. Turner, G. J. Perez, and K. Cho, 2017a: Positive trend in the Antarctic sea ice cover and associated changes in surface temperature. J. Climate, 30, 2251-2267, .

Comiso, J. C., W. N. Meier, and R. Gersten, 2017b: Variability and trends in the Arctic Sea ice cover: Results from different techniques. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 122, 6883-6900,

Duffy-Anderson, J. T., and Coauthors, 2019: Responses of the northern Bering Sea and southeastern Bering Sea pelagic ecosystems following record-breaking low winter sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 9833-9842,

Frey, K. E., J. C. Comiso, L. W. Cooper, J. M. Grebmeier and L. V. Stock, 2018: Arctic Ocean Primary Productivity: The response of marine algae to climate warming and sea ice decline. Arctic Report Card 2018, E. Osborne, J. Richter-Menge, and M. Jeffries, Eds.,

Frey, K. E., J. C. Comiso, L. W. Cooper, J. M. Grebmeier and L. V. Stock, 2019: Arctic Ocean Primary Productivity: The response of marine algae to climate warming and sea ice decline. Arctic Report Card 2019, J. Richter-Menge, M. L. Druckenmiller, and M. Jeffries, Eds.,

Giesbrecht, K. E., D. E. Varela, J. Wiktor, J. M. Grebmeier, B. Kelly, and J. E. Long, 2019: A decade of summertime measurements of phytoplankton biomass, productivity and assemblage composition in the Pacific Arctic Region from 2006 to 2016. Deep-Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr., 162, 93-113,

Henley, S. F., M. Porter, L. Hobbs, J. Braun, R. Guillaume-Castel, E. J. Venables, E. Dumont, and F. Cottier, 2020: Nitrate supply and uptake in the Atlantic Arctic sea ice zone: seasonal cycle, mechanisms and drivers. Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. A, 378, 20190361,

Hill, V., M. Ardyna, S. H. Lee, and D. E. Varela, 2018: Decadal trends in phytoplankton production in the Pacific Arctic Region from 1950 to 2012. Deep-Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr., 152, 82-94,

Lalande, C., J. M. Grebmeier, R. R. Hopcroft and S. Danielson, 2020: Annual cycle of export fluxes of biogenic matter near Hanna Shoal in the northeast Chukchi Sea. Deep-Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr., 177, 104730,

Lalande, C., E. -M. Nöthig, and L. Fortier, 2019: Algal export in the Arctic Ocean in times of global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 5959-5967,

Leu, E., C. J. Mundy, P. Assmy, K. Campbell, T. M. Gabrielsen, M. Gosselin, T. Juul-Pedersen, and R. Gradinger, 2015: Arctic spring awakening – Steering principles behind the phenology of vernal ice algal blooms. Prog. Oceanogr., 139, 151-170,

Lewis, K. M., G. L. van Dijken, and K. R. Arrigo, 2020: Changes in phytoplankton concentration now drive increased Arctic Ocean primary production. Science, 369, 198-202,

Neeley, A. R., L. A. Harris, and K. E. Frey, 2018: Unraveling phytoplankton community dynamics in the northern Chukchi Sea under sea‐ice‐covered and sea‐ice‐free conditions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 7663-7671,

Randelhoff, A., and Coauthors, 2020: Arctic mid-winter phytoplankton growth revealed by autonomous profilers. Sci. Adv., 6, eabc2678,

Stabeno, P., and S. W. Bell, 2019: Extreme conditions in the Bering Sea (2017-2018): record-breaking low sea-ice extent. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 8952-8959,

Tremblay J. -É., L. G. Anderson, P. Matrai, P. Coupel, S. Bélanger, C. Michel, and M. Reigstad, 2015: Global and regional drivers of nutrient supply, primary production and CO2 drawdown in the changing Arctic Ocean. Prog. Oceanogr., 139, 171-196,

Tundra Greenness

Andreu-Hayles, L., B. V. Gaglioti, L. T. Berner, M. Levesque, K. J. Anchukaitis, S. J. Goetz, and R. D’Arrigo, 2020: A narrow window of summer temperatures associated with shrub growth in Arctic Alaska. Environ. Res. Lett., 15, 105012,

Andruko, R., R. Danby, and P. Grogan, 2020: Recent growth and expansion of birch shrubs across a Low Arctic landscape in continental Canada: Are these responses more a consequence of the severely declining caribou herd than of climate warming? Ecosystems, 23, 1362-1379,

Arndt, K. A., and Coauthors, 2019: Arctic greening associated with lengthening growing seasons in Northern Alaska. Environ. Res. Lett., 14, 125018,

Assmann, J. J., I. Myers-Smith, J. Kerby, A. M. Cunliffe, and G. N. Daskalova, 2020: Drone data reveal heterogeneity in tundra greenness and phenology not captured by satellites. Environ. Res. Lett., 15, 125002,

Beamish, A., and Coauthors, 2020: Recent trends and remaining challenges for optical remote sensing of Arctic tundra vegetation: A review and outlook. Remote Sens. Environ., 246, 111872,

Berner, L. T., and Coauthors, 2020: Summer warming explains widespread but not uniform greening in the Arctic tundra biome. Nat. Commun., 11, 4621,

Bhatt, U., and Coauthors, 2010: Circumpolar Arctic tundra vegetation change linked to sea ice decline. Earth Interact., 14, 1-20,

Bhatt, U., and Coauthors, 2013: Recent declines in warming and vegetation greening trends over Pan-Arctic tundra. Remote Sens., 5, 4229-4254,

Bieniek, P. A., and Coauthors, 2015: Climate drivers linked to changing seasonality of Alaska coastal tundra vegetation productivity. Earth Interact., 19, 1-29,

Bjorkman, A. D., and Coauthors, 2018: Plant functional trait change across a warming tundra biome. Nature, 562, 57-62,

Bjorkman, A. D., and Coauthors, 2020: Status and trends in Arctic vegetation: Evidence from experimental warming and long-term monitoring. Ambio, 49, 678-692,

Bokhorst, S. F., J. W. Bjerke, H. Tømmervik, T. V. Callaghan, and G. K. Phoenix, 2009: Winter warming events damage sub-Arctic vegetation: consistent evidence from an experimental manipulation and a natural event. J. Ecol., 97, 1408-1415,

Bronen, R., D. Pollock, J. Overbeck, D. Stevens, S. Natali, and C. Maio, 2020: Usteq: integrating indigenous knowledge and social and physical sciences to coproduce knowledge and support community-based adaptation. Polar Geogr., 43, 188-205,

Cao, R., Y. Feng, X. Liu, M. Shen, and J. Zhou, 2020: Uncertainty of vegetation green-up date estimated from vegetation indices due to snowmelt at northern middle and high latitudes. Remote Sens., 12, 190,

Cunliffe, A. M., J. J. Assmann, G. Daskalova, J. T. Kerby, and I. H. Myers-Smith: Aboveground biomass corresponds strongly with drone-derived canopy height but weakly with greenness (NDVI) in a shrub tundra landscape. Environ. Res. Lett., 15(12), 125004,

Duncan, B. N., and Coauthors, 2020: Space-based observations for understanding changes in the Arctic-boreal zone. Rev. Geophys., 58, e2019RG000652,

Farquharson, L. M., V. E. Romanovsky, W. L. Cable, D. A. Walker, S. V. Kokelj, and D. Nicolsky, 2019: Climate change drives widespread and rapid thermokarst development in very cold permafrost in the Canadian High Arctic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 6681-6689,

Frost, G. V., R. A. Loehman, L. B. Saperstein, M. J. Macander, P. R. Nelson, D. P. Paradis, and S. M. Natali, 2020: Multi-decadal patterns of vegetation succession after tundra fire on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Environ. Res. Lett., 15, 025003,

Grünberg, I., E. J. Wilcox, S. Zwieback, P. Marsh, and J. Boike, 2020: Linking tundra vegetation, snow, soil temperature, and permafrost. Biogeosciences, 17, 4261-4279,

Herman-Mercer, N. M., R. A. Loehman, R. C. Toohey, and C. Paniyak, 2020: Climate- and disturbance-driven changes in subsistence berries in coastal Alaska: Indigenous knowledge to inform ecological inference. Hum. Ecol., 48, 85-99,

Hewitt, R. E., D. L. Taylor, H. Genet, A. D. McGuire, and M. C. Mack, 2019: Below-ground plant traits influence tundra plant acquisition of newly thawed permafrost nitrogen. J. Ecol., 107, 950-962,

Hu, F. S., P. E. Higuera, P. Duffy, M. L. Chipman, A. V. Rocha, A. M. Young, R. Kelly, and M. C. Dietze, 2015: Arctic tundra fires: natural variability and responses to climate change. Front. Ecol. Environ., 13, 369-377,

Hugelius, G., and Coauthors, 2020: Large stocks of peatland carbon and nitrogen are vulnerable to permafrost thaw. P. Natl. A. Sci., 117, 20438-20446,

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Glaciers and Ice Caps Outside Greenland

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Bowhead Whales: Recent Insights Into Their Biology, Status, and Resilience

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Coastal Permafrost Erosion

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Wildland Fire in High Northern Latitudes

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