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Arctic Report Card: Update for 2015
Warmer air and sea, declining ice continue to trigger Arctic change
Archive of previous Arctic Report Cards
2015 Arctic Report Card


Surface Air Temperature

Kosaka, Y., and S.-P. Xie, 2013: Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Nature, 501, 403-407.

Kug, J.-S., J.-H. Jeong, Y.-S. Jang, B.-M. Kim, C. K. Folland, S.-K. Min, and S.-W. Son, 2015: Two distinct influences of Arctic warming on cold winters over North America and East Asia. Nature Geoscience, 8, DOI:10.1038/NGEO2517.

Makshtas A. P., I. I. Bolshakova, R. M. Gun, O. L. Jukova, N. E. Ivanov, and S. V. Shutilin, 2011: Climate of the Hydrometeorological Observatory Tiksi region. In Meteorological and Geophysical Investigations. Paulsen, 2011, 49-74.

Nordli, Ö, R. Przybylak, A. E. J. Ogilvie, and K. Isaksen, 2014: Long-term temperature trends and variability on Spitsbergen: the extended Svalbard Airport temperature series, 1898-2012. Polar Res., 33, 21349.

Overland, J. E., 2009: The case for global warming in the Arctic. In Influence of Climate Change on the Changing Arctic and Sub-Arctic Conditions, J. C. J. Nihoul and A. G. Kostianoy (eds.), Springer, 13-23.

Overland, J. E., K. R. Wood, and M. Wang, 2011: Warm Arctic-cold continents: Impacts of the newly open Arctic Sea. Polar Res., 30, 15787, doi: 10.3402/polar.v30i0.15787.

Overland, J. E., E. Hanna, I. Hanssen-Bauer, B.-M. Kim, S.-J. Kim, J. Walsh, M. Wang, and U. Bhatt, 2014: Air Temperature. In Arctic Report Card: Update for 2014,

Pithan, F. and T. Mauritsen, 2014: Arctic amplification dominated by temperature feedbacks in contemporary climate models. Nature Geoscience, doi: 10.1038/ngeo2071.

Serreze, M., and R. Barry, 2011: Processes and impacts of Arctic amplification: A research synthesis. Global and Planetary Change, 77, 85-96.

Tedesco, M., J. E. Box, J. Cappelen, R. S. Fausto, X. Fettweis, T. Mote, C. J. P. P. Smeets, D. van As, R. S. W. van de Wal, and J. Wahr, 2015: Greenland Ice Sheet. In Arctic Report Card: Update for 2015,

Terrestrial Snow Cover

Brasnett, B., 1999: A global analysis of snow depth for numerical weather prediction. J. Appl. Meteorol., 38, 726-740.

Brown, R., and C. Derksen, 2013: Is Eurasian October snow cover extent increasing? Env. Res. Lett., 8, 024006 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/024006.

Callaghan, T., M. Johansson, R. Brown, P. Groisman, N. Labba, V. Radionov, R. Barry, O. Bulygina, R. Essery, D Frolov, V. Golubev, T. Grenfell, M. Petrushina, V. Razuvaev, D. Robinson, P. Romanov, D. Shindell, A. Shmakin, S. Sokratov, S. Warren, D. Yang, 2011: The changing face of Arctic snow cover: A synthesis of observed and projected changes. Ambio, 40:17-31.

Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, and H. J. Zwally, 1996, updated yearly: Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data, Version 1 [1979-2014]. Boulder, Colorado USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center.

Cohen, J., J. Furtado, J. Jones, M. Barlow, D. Whittleson, and D. Enekhabi, 2014: Linking Siberian Snow Cover to Precursors of Stratospheric Variability. J. Climate, 27: 5422-5432.

Estilow, T. W., A. H. Young, and D. A. Robinson, 2015: A long-term Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent data record for climate studies and monitoring. Earth Sys. Sci. Data, 7.1: 137-142.

Helfrich, S., D. McNamara, B. Ramsay, T. Baldwin, and T. Kasheta, 2007: Enhancements to, and forthcoming developments in the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). Hydrol. Process., 21, 1576-1586.

Maslanik, J. and J. Stroeve, 1999, updated daily: Near-Real-Time DMSP SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations, Version 1. [September 2015]. Boulder, Colorado USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center.

Greenland Ice Sheet

Box, J. E., and D. T. Decker, 2011: Greenland marine-terminating glacier area changes: 2000-2010. Ann. Glaciol., 52, 91-98,

Box, J. E., X. Fettweis, J. C. Stroeve, M. Tedesco, D. K. Hall, and K. Steffen, 2012. Greenland ice sheet albedo feedback: thermodynamics and atmospheric drivers. The Cryosphere, 6, 821-839, doi:10.5194/tc-6-821-2012.

Cappelen (ed), 2015. Greenland – DMI Historical Climate Data Collection 1784-2014. Danish Meteorol. Inst. Tech. Rep., 15-04.

Fausto R. S., D. Van As and the PROMICE Project Team (2012) Ablation observations for 2008-2011 from the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE). Geol. Surv. Denmark Greenland Bull., 26, 73-76.

Jensen, T., J. E. Box, and C. Hvidberg, unpublished: A sensitivity study of yearly Greenland ice sheet marine terminating outlet glacier changes: 1999-2013. Submitted to J. Glaciol.

McLeod, J. T., and T. L. Mote, 2015: Linking interannual variability in extreme Greenland blocking episodes to the recent increase in summer melting across the Greenland ice sheet. Int. J. Climatol., DOI: 10.1002/joc.4440.

Mote, T. L., 2007: Greenland surface melt trends 1973-2007: Evidence of a large increase in 2007. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L22507.

Nghiem, S. V., D. K. Hall, T. L. Mote, M. Tedesco, M. R. Albert, K. Keegan, C. A. Shuman, N. E. DiGirolamo, and G. Neumann, 2012: The extreme melt across the Greenland ice sheet in 2012. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L20502, doi:10.1029/2012GL053611.

Tedesco, M., Snowmelt detection over the Greenland ice sheet from SSM/I brightness temperature daily variations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02504,doi:10.1029/2006GL028466, January 2007.

Tedesco, M., X. Fettweis, T. Mote, J. Wahr, P. Alexander, J. Box, and B. Wouters, 2013: Evidence and analysis of 2012 Greenland records from spaceborne observations, a regional climate model and reanalysis data. The Cryosphere, 7, 615-630.

Tedesco, M., J. E. Box, J. Cappelen, X. Fettweis, T. Mote, A. K. Rennermalm, R. S. W. van de Wal, and J. Wahr, 2014: Greenland Ice Sheet. In Arctic Report Card: Update for 2013,

Tedesco, M., T. Mote, J. Jeyaratnam, X. Fettweis, E. Hanna, and K. Briggs, Linkages between exceptional jet-stream conditions and atmospheric and surface records over the Greenland ice sheet during summer 2015. Manuscript in preparation for submission to Nature Climate Change.

Van As D, Fausto RS and PROMICE Project Team. 2011: Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE): first temperature and ablation records. Geol. Surv. Denmark Greenland Bull., 23, 73-76.

Van de Wal, R. S. W., W. Greuell, M. R. van den Broeke, C.H. Reijmer, and J. Oerlemans, 2005: Surface mass-balance observations and automatic weather station data along a transect near Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland. Ann. Glaciol., 42, 311-316.

Van de Wal, R. S. W., W. Boot, C. J. P. P. Smeets, H. Snellen, M. R. van den Broeke, and J. Oerlemans, 2012: Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West-Greenland. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 4, 31-35, doi:10.5194/essd-4-31-2012.

Velicogna, I., and J. Wahr, 2013. Time-variable gravity observations of ice sheet mass balance: precision and limitations of the GRACE satellite data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 3055-3063, doi:10.1002/grl.50527.

Sea Ice

Kwok, R., and G. F. Cunningham, 2015: Variability of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume from CryoSat-2, Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London A: Math., Phys. Eng. Sci., 373, 2045,

Kwok, R., and D. A. Rothrock, 2009: Decline in Arctic sea ice thickness from submarine and ICESat records: 1958-2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, doi:10.1029/2009GL039035.

Laxon, S. W., K. A. Giles, A. L. Ridout, D. J. Wingham, R. Willatt, R. Cullen, R. Kwok, A. Schweiger, J. Zhang, C. Haas, S. Hendricks, R. Krishfield, N. Kurtz, S. L. Farrell, M. Davidson, 2013: CryoSat estimates of Arctic sea ice Volume, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, doi:10.1002/grl.50193.

Maslanik, J., J. Stroeve, C. Fowler, and W. Emery, 2011: Distribution and trends in Arctic sea ice age through spring 2011. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, doi:10.1029/2011GL047735.


Perovich, D. K. and J. A. Richter-Menge, Regional variability in sea ice melt in a changing Arctic, 2015: Proc. Royal Soc., 373,

Richter-Menge, J., and S. L. Farrell, 2013: Arctic sea ice conditions in spring 2009 – 2013 prior to melt, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 5888-5893, doi: 10.1002/2013GL058011.

Tilling, R. L., A. Ridout, A. Shepherd, and D. J. Wingham, 2015; Increased Arctic sea ice volume after anomalously low melting in 2013. Nat. Geosci., 8, 643-646. doi:10.1038/ngeo2489.

Tschudi, M. A., C. Fowler, J. A. Maslanik, and J. A. Stroeve, 2010: Tracking the movement and changing surface characteristics of Arctic sea ice. IEEE J. Sel. Topics Earth Obs. and Rem. Sens., 3, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2010.2048305.

Tschudi, M., C. Fowler, and J. Maslanik, 2015: EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age, Version 2. Boulder, Colorado USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center,

Sea Surface Temperature

Reynolds, R. W., N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang, 2002: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate, 15, 1609-1625.

Reynolds, R. W., T. M. Smith, C. Liu, D. B. Chelton, K. S. Casey, and M. G. Schlax, 2007: Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J. Climate, 20, 5473-5496.

Simmonds, I., 2013: [The Arctic] Sidebar 5.1: The extreme storm in the Arctic Basin in August 2012 [in “State of the Climate in 2012”]. Bull. American Met. Soc., 94(8), S114-S115.

Arctic Ocean Primary Productivity

Alexeev, V. A., V. V. Ivanov, R. Kwok, and L. H. Smedsrud, 2013: North Atlantic warming and declining volume of arctic sea ice. The Cryosphere Discuss., 7, 245-265, doi:10.5194/tcd-7-245-2013.

Arrigo, K. R., and G. L. van Dijken, 2015: Continued increases in Arctic Ocean primary production. Progress in Oceanography, 136, 60-70.

Barber, D. G., H. Hop, C. J. Mundy, B. Else, I. A. Dmitrenko, J.-É. Tremblay, J. K. Ehn, P. Assmy, M. Daase, L. M. Candlish, and S. Rysgaard. 2015: Selected physical, biological and biogeochemical implications of a rapidly changing Arctic Marginal Ice Zone. Progress in Oceanography, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2015.09.003.

Behrenfeld, M. J., and P. G. Falkowski, 1997: Photosynthetic rates derived from satellite-based chlorophyll concentration. Limnology and Oceanography, 42(1), 1-20.

Bélanger, S., M. Babin, and J. É. Tremblay, 2013: Increasing cloudiness in Arctic damps the increase in phytoplankton primary production due to sea ice receding. Biogeosci., 10, 4087-4101, doi:10.5194/bg-10-4087-2013.

Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, and H. Zwally, 1996, updated yearly: Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data. [2003-2014]. Boulder, Colorado USA: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

Chaves, J., P. J. Werdell, C. W. Proctor, A. R. Neeley, S. A. Freeman, C. S. Thomas, and S. B. Hooker, 2015: Assessment of ocean color data records from MODIS-Aqua in the western Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research II, 118, Part A, 32-43, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2015.02.011.

Comiso, J. C., 2015: Variability and trends of the Global Sea Ice Covers and Sea Levels: Effects on Physicochemical Parameters. Climate and Fresh Water Toxins, Luis M. Botana, M. Carmen Lauzao and Natalia Vilarino, Eds., De Gruyter, Berlin, Germany.

Coupel, P., D. Ruiz-Pino, M. A. Sicre, J. F. Chen, S. H. Lee, N. Schiffrine, H. L. Li, and J. C. Gascard, 2015: The impact of freshening on phytoplankton production in the Pacific Arctic Ocean. Progress in Oceanography, 131, 113-125.

Demidov, A. B., S. A. Mosharov, and P. N. Makkaveev, 2014: Patterns of the Kara Sea primary production in autumn: Biotic and abiotic forcing of subsurface layer. J. Marine Systems, 132, 130-149, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.01.014.

Falk-Petersen, S., V. Pavlov, J. Berge, F. Cottier, K. M. Kovacs, and C. Lydersen, 2015: At the rainbow’s end: high productivity fueled by upwelling along an Arctic shelf. Polar Biol., 38, 5-11, doi:10.1007/s00300-014-1482-1.

Fernandez-Mendez, M., C. Katlein, B. Rabe, M. Nicolaus, I. Peeken, K. Bakker, H. Flores, and A. Boetius, 2015: Photosynthetic production in the central Arctic Ocean during the record sea-ice minimum in 2012. Biogeosci., 12, 3525-3549.

Frey, K. E., G. W. K. Moore, J. M. Grebmeier, and L. W. Cooper, 2015: Divergent Patterns of Recent Sea Ice Cover across the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas of the Pacific Arctic Region. Progress in Oceanography, 136, 32-49,

Hill, V. J., P. A. Matrai, E. Olson, S. Suttles, M. Steele, L. A. Codispoti, and R. C. Zimmerman, 2013: Synthesis of integrated primary production in the Arctic Ocean: II. In situ and remotely sensed estimates. Progress in Oceanography, 110, 107-125, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2012.11.005.

Leu, E., C. J. Mundy, P. Assmy, K. Campbell, T. M. Gabrielsen, M. Gosselin, T. Juul-Pedersen, and R. Gradinger, 2015: Arctic spring awakening – Steering principles behind the phenology of vernal ice algal blooms. Progress in Oceanography,

Maslanik, J., and J. Stroeve, 1999, updated daily: Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations. [2015]. Boulder, Colorado USA: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

Michel, C., J. Hamilton, E. Hansen, D. Barber, M. Reigstad, J. Iacozza, L. Seuthe, and A. Niemi, 2015: Arctic Ocean outflow shelves in the changing Arctic: A review and perspectives. Progress in Oceanography, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2015.08.007.

Müller-Karger, F. E., R. Varela, R. Thunell, R. Luerssen, C. Hu, and J. J. Walsh, 2005: The importance of continental margins in the global carbon cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L01602, doi:10.1029/2004GL021346.

Petrenko, D., D. Pozdnyakov, J. Johannessen, F. Counillon, and V. Sychov, 2013: Satellite-derived multi-year trend in primary production in the Arctic Ocean. Int. J. Remote Sens., 34, 3903-3937,

Tremblay J.-É., L. G. Anderson, P. Matrai, S. Bélanger, C. Michel, P. Coupel, and M. Reigstad, 2015: Global and regional drivers of nutrient supply, primary production and CO2 drawdown in the changing Arctic Ocean. Progress in Oceanography, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2015.08.009.

Tundra Greenness

Bhatt, U. S., D. A. Walker, M. K. Raynolds, P. A. Bieniek, H. E. Epstein, J. C. Comiso, J. E. Pinzon, C. J. Tucker, and I. V. Polyakov, 2013: Recent declines in warming and arctic vegetation greening trends over pan-Arctic tundra, Remote Sensing (Special NDVI3g Issue), 5, 4229-4254; doi:10.3390/rs5094229.

Bienau, M. J., D. Hattermann, M. Kröncke, L. Kretz, A. Otte, W. L. Eiserhardt, A. Milbau, B. J. Graae, W. Durka, and R. Lutz Eckstein, 2014: Snow cover consistently affects growth and reproduction of Empetrum hermaphroditum across latitudinal and local climate gradients. Alpine Botany, 124, 115-129.

Bieniek, P. A., U. S. Bhatt, D. A. Walker, M. K. Raynolds, J. C. Comiso, H. E. Epstein, J. E. Pinzon, C. J. Tucker, R. L. Thoman, H. Tran, N. Mölders, M. Steele, J. Zhang, and W. Ermold, 2015: Climate drivers linked to changing seasonality of Alaska coastal tundra vegetation productivity. Earth Interactions, in press.

Bjerke, J. W., S. R. Karlsen, Høgda, E. Malnes, J. U. Jepsen, S. Lovibond, D. Vikhamar-Schuler, and H. Tømmervik, 2014: Record-low primary productivity and high plant damage in the Nordic Arctic Region in 2012 caused by multiple weather events and pest outbreaks, Environ. Res. Lett., 9, 084006.

Bjorkman, A. D., S. C. Elmendorf, A. L. Beamish, M. Velland, and G. H. R. Henry, 2015: Contrasting effects of warming and increased snowfall on Arctic tundra plant phenology over the past two decades, Global Change Biol., doi:10.1111/gcb.13051.

Boulanger-Lapointe, N., E. Lévesque, S. Boudreau, G.H.R. Henry, and N. Martin Schmidt, 2014: Population structure and dynamics of willow (Salix arctica) in the High Arctic. J. Biogeogr., 41, 1967-1978.

Elmendorf, S. C., G. H. R. Henry, R. D. Hollister, A. M. Fosaa, W. A. Gould, L. Hermanutz, A. Hofgaard, I. S. Jónsdóttir, J. C. Jorgenson, E. Lévesque, B. Magnusson, U. Molau, I. H. Myers-Smith, S. F. Oberbauer, C. Rixen, C. E. Tweedie, and M. D. Walker, 2015: Experiment, monitoring, and gradient methods used to infer climate change effects on plant communities yield consistent patterns. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 112, 448-452.

Epstein, H. E., G. V. Frost, D. A. Walker, and R. Kwok, 2015: The Arctic – Declassified high-resolution visible imagery for observing the Arctic. In, State of the Climate in 2014. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 96, S142-S143.

Fraser, R. H., T. C. Lantz, I. Olthof, S. V. Kokelj, and R.A. Sims, 2014: Warming-induced shrubs expansion and lichen decline in the western Canadian Arctic. Ecosystems, 17, 1151-1168.

Frost, G. V. and H. E. Epstein, 2014: Tall shrub and tree expansion in Siberian tundra ecotones since the 1960s. Global Change Biol., 20, 1264-1277.

Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS), 2013: Available online:

Hollesen, J., A. Buchwal, G. Rachlewicz, B. U. Hansen, M. O. Hansen, O. Stecher, and B. Elberling, 2015: Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century. Global Change Biology, 21, 2410-2423.

Hollister, R. D., J. L. May, K. S. Kremers, C. E. Tweedie, S. F. Oberbauer, J. A. Liebig, T. F. Botting, R. T. Barrett, and J. L. Gregory, 2015: Warming experiments elucidate the drivers of observed directional changes in tundra vegetation. Ecology and Evolution, 5, 1881-1895.

Hugelius, G., J. G. Bockheim, P. Camill, B. Elberling, G. Grosse, J. W. Harden, K. Johnson, T. Jorgenson, C. D. Koven, P. Kuhry, G. Michaelson, U. Mishra, J. Palmtag, C. L. Ping, J. O’Donnell, L. Chirmeister, E. A. G. Schuur, Y. Sheng, L. C. Smith, J. Strauss, and Z. Yu, 2013: A new data set for estimating organic carbon storage to 3m depth in soils of the northern circumpolar permafrost region. Earth System Sci. Data, 5, 393-402.

Jørgensen, R. H., M. Hallinger, S. Ahlgrimm, J. Friemel, J. Kollmann, and H. Meilby, 2015: Growth response to climatic change over 120 years for Alnus viridis and Salix glauca in West Greenland. J. Vegetation Sci., 26, 155-165.

Kremers, K. S., R. D. Hollister, and S. F. Oberbauer, 2015: Diminished response of arctic plants to warming over time. PLOS One, 10, e0116586.

Myers-Smith, I. H., S. C. Elmendorf, P. S. A. Beck, M. Wilmking, M. Hallinger, D. Blok, K. D. Tape, S. A. Rayback, M. Macias-Fauria, B. C. Forbes, J. D. M. Speed, N. Boulanger-Lapointe, C. Rixen, E. Lévesque, N. Martin Schmidt, C. Baittinger, A. J. Trant, L. Hermanutz, L. Sieqwart Collier, M. A. Dawes, T. C. Lantz, S. Weijers, R. Halfdan Jørgensen, A. Buchwal, A. Buras, A. T. Naito, V. Ravolainen, G. Schaepman-Strub, J. A. Wheeler, S. Wipf, K. C. Guay, D. S. Hik, and M. Vellend, 2015: Climate sensitivity of shrub growth across the tundra biome. Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/nclimate2697.

Piao, S., H. Nan, C. Huntingford, P. Ciais, P. Friedlingstein, S. Sitch, S. Peng, A Ahlström, J. G. Canadell, N. Cong, S. Levis, P. E. Levy, L. Liu, M. R. Lomas, J. Mao, R. B. Myneni, P. Peylin, B. Poulter, S. Shi, G. Yin, N. Viovy, T. Wang, X. H. Wang, S. Zaehle, N. Zeng, Z. Z. Zeng, and A. P. Chen, 2014: Evidence for a weakening relationship between interannual temperature variability and northern vegetation activity. Nature Communications 5, 5018.

Preece, C., and G. K. Pheonix, 2014: Impact of early and late winter icing events on sub-arctic dwarf shrubs. Plant Biol., 15, 125-132.

Raynolds M. K., D. A. Walker, H. E. Epstein, J. E. Pinzon, and C. J. Tucker, 2012: A new estimate of tundra-biome phytomass from trans-Arctic field data and AVHRR NDVI. Remote Sens. Lett., 3, 403-411.

Ropars, P., E. Lévesque, and S. Boudreau, 2015: How do climate and topography influence greening of the forest-tundra ecotone in northern Québec? A dendrochronological analysis of Betula glandulosa. J. Ecology, 103, 679-690.

Sweet, S. K., K. L. Griffin, H. Steltzer, L. Gough, and N. T. Boelmann, 2015: Greater deciduous shrub abundance extends tundra peak season and increases modeled net CO2 uptake. Global Change Biol., doi:10.1111/gcb.12852.

van der Wal, R., and A. Stien, 2014: High-arctic plants like it hot: a long-term investigation of between-year variability in plant biomass. Ecology, 95, 3414-3427.

Zamin, T. J., M. S. Bret-Harte, and P. Grogan, 2014: Evergreen shrubs dominate responses to experimental summer warming and fertilization in Canadian mesic low arctic tundra. J. Ecology, 102, 749-766.

River Discharge

Aagaard, K., and E. C. Carmack, 1989: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation. J. Geophys. Res. 94(C10): 14485-14498.

Holmes, R. M., M. T. Coe, G. J. Fiske, T. Gurtovaya, J. W. McClelland, A. I. Shiklomanov, R. G. M. Spencer, S. E. Tank, and A. V. Zhulidov, 2013: Climate change impacts on the hydrology and biogeochemistry of Arctic Rivers. Global Impacts of Climate Change on Inland Waters, edited by C. R. Goldman, M. Kumagai, and R. D. Robarts, Wiley, 3-26.

McClelland, J. W., S. J. Dery, B. J. Peterson, R. M. Holmes, and E. F. Wood, 2006: A pan-arctic evaluation of changes in river discharge during the latter half of the 20th century. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L06715, doi:06710.01029/02006GL025753.

McClelland, J. W., R. M. Holmes, K. H. Dunton, and R. Macdonald, 2012: The Arctic Ocean estuary. Estuar. Coast. 35, 353-368, doi:10.1007/s12237-010-9357-3.

Overeem, I., and J. P. M. Syvitski, 2010: Shifting discharge peaks in Arctic rivers, 1977-2007. Geogr. Ann., 92a, 285-296.

Peterson, B. J., R. M. Holmes, J. W. McClelland, C. J. Vorosmarty, R. B. Lammers, A. I. Shiklomanov, I. A. Shiklomanov, and S. Rahmstorf, 2002: Increasing river discharge to the Arctic Ocean. Science, 298, 2171-2173.

Rawlins, M. A., et al. 2010. Analysis of the arctic system freshwater cycle intensification: observations and expectations. J. Climate, 23, doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3421.1.

Shiklomanov A. I., and R. B. Lammers, 2009: Record Russian river discharge in 2007 and the limits of analysis. Environ. Res. Lett. 4, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/4/4/045015.

Shiklomanov, A. I., and R. B. Lammers, 2011: River Discharge. In Arctic Report Card: Update for 2011,

Walruses in a Time of Climate Change

Altizer, S., R. S. Ostfeld, P. T. J. Johnson, S. Kutz, and C. D. Harvell, 2013: Climate change and infectious diseases: from evidence to a predictive framework. Science, 341, 514-9.

AMAP, 2013: Arctic Ocean Acidification Assessment: Summary for Policy Makers. AMAP, Oslo, Norway.

Beszczynska-Möller, A., E. Fahrbach, U. Schauer, and E. Hansen, 2012: Variability in Atlantic water temperature and transport at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean, 1997-2010. ICES J. Mar. Sci., doi:10.1093/icesjms/fss056.

Boltunov, A. N., S. E. Belikov, Y.A. Gorbunov, D. T. Menis, and V. S. Semenova, 2010: The Atlantic walrus of the Southeastern Barents Sea and adjacent regions: review of the present-day status. WWF Russia and the Marine Mammal Council, Moscow.

Fay, F. H., 1982: Ecology and Biology of the Pacific Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens Illiger. North American Fauna, 74, 1-279.

Fay, F. H. and C. E. Bowlby, 1994: The Harvest of Pacific Walrus, 1931-1989. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Technical Report MMM 94-2.

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Climate Change is Pushing Boreal Fish Northwards to the Arctic: The Case of the Barents Sea

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Community-based Observing Network Systems for Arctic Change Detection and Response

Alessa, L., G. Beaujean, L. Bower, I. Campbell, O. Chemenko, M. Copchiak, M. Fidel, U. Fleener, J. Gamble, A. Gundersen, V. Immingan, L. Jackson, A. Kalmakoff, A. Kliskey, S. Merculief, D. Pungowiyi, O. Sutton, E. Ungott, J. Ungott, and J. Veldstr, 2015a: Bering Sea Sub-Network II: Sharing Knowledge, Improving Understanding, Enabling Response – International community-based environmental observation alliance for a changing Arctic. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, 61 pp.

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Alessa, L., A. Kliskey, P. Williams and G. Beaujean 2015c: Incorporating Community Based Observing Networks and Systems: Toward a Regional Early Warning System For Enhanced Responses to Marine Arctic Critical Events. Washington J. Environmental Law and Policy, in press.

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Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Velocity: New Data Sets

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November 25, 2015

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